Cite gprMax

If you use gprMax and publish your work we would be grateful if you could cite our work!

The principal reference for gprMax is [1] which describes the new version of the software and its main features. If you have used specific elements of the software you might also like to cite: [2] - GPU accelerated solver, [3] - soil modelling, rough surfaces; [4] - dispersive materials; [5] - advanced features of the RIPML; [6, 7] - GPR antenna models. If you wish to reference the development history of gprMax you can also cite [8].

  1. Warren, C., Giannopoulos, A., & Giannakis, I. (2016). gprMax: Open source software to simulate electromagnetic wave propagation for Ground Penetrating Radar, Computer Physics Communications, 209, 163-170, 10.1016/j.cpc.2016.08.020.
  2. Warren, C., Giannopoulos, A., Gray, A., Giannakis, I., Patterson, A., Wetter, L., & Hamrah, A. (2018). A CUDA-based GPU engine for gprMax: Open source FDTD electromagnetic simulation software, Computer Physics Communications, 237, 208-218, 10.1016/j.cpc.2018.11.007.
  3. Giannakis, I., Giannopoulos, A., Warren, C. (2016). A Realistic FDTD Numerical Modeling Framework of Ground Penetrating Radar for Landmine Detection. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 9(1), 37-51, 10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2468597.
  4. Giannakis, I., Giannopoulos, A. (2014). A Novel Piecewise Linear Recursive Convolution Approach for Dispersive Media Using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 62(5), 2669-2678, 10.1109/TAP.2014.2308549.
  5. Giannopoulos, A. (2012). Unsplit Implementation of Higher Order PMLs. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 60(3), 1479-1485, 10.1109/TAP.2011.2180344.
  6. Warren, C., Giannopoulos, A. (2011). Creating finite-difference time-domain models of commercial ground-penetrating radar antennas using Taguchi's optimization method. Geophysics, 76(2), G37-G47, 10.1190/1.3548506.
  7. Giannakis, I., Giannopoulos, A., Warren, C. (2018). Realistic FDTD GPR antenna models optimised using a novel linear/non-linear Full Waveform Inversion. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience & Remote Sensing, 207(3), 1768-1778, 10.1109/TGRS.2018.2869027.
  8. Giannopoulos, A. (2005). Modelling ground penetrating radar by GprMax, Construction and Building Materials, 19(10), 755-762, 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.06.007.

You can also get references and links to the PhD theses of the development team.

Research using gprMax

gprMax has been successfully used for a diverse range of applications in academia and industry, from fields including engineering, geophysics, archaeology, and medicine. The following table lists publications (extracted from Scopus on 18-07-2023) that have cited reference [1].